Posted by Ancestry Team on December 1, 2016 in AncestryDNA

This is a guest post by Linda Barnickel.

Although I had my DNA tested with Ancestry over a year ago, I only recently discovered the wealth of information accessible through two unobtrusive links to be found on each individual match page.

Predicted Relationships

Choose one of your individual matches and go to that page. Click on “What does this mean?” next to the “Possible range” of relationship.

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A pop-up window will appear with more information.

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This box provides me with information about how and why AncestryDNA believes that I have a 3rd cousin relationship with this particular individual, including an estimated accuracy of this prediction (98%).

Scrolling down – and this is where the real value of this pop-up window becomes clear – it details exactly what a 3rd cousin type of relationship looks like between me and my match. It helps me know where on our pedigree we should look for our lines to merge through a common ancestor.

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But it doesn’t stop there!

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In fact, it goes on to explain to me eight different possible variations on how my match and I might be related, and provides a similar graphic chart (like the 2nd cousins, 2x removed chart above), to help me trace and envision that relationship.

I’ve summarized all eight possibilities by listing the predicted relationship, and the common ancestor, below:

  • 3rd cousins = great-great-grandparent
  • 2nd cousins (2x removed) = 3x great-grandparent
  • 3rd cousins (1x removed) = great-great-grandparent
  • 2nd cousins (3x removed) = great-grandparent
  • 1st cousins (1x removed) = 3x great-grandparent
  • 4th cousins = 3x great-grandparent
  • 3rd cousins (2x removed) == 4x great-grandparent
  • 2nd cousins (4x removed) = great-grandparent

By looking at all of these possible variations, I can group the results as follows:

  • 2 possibilities where my match and I could link as close as our great-grandparent
  • 2 possibilities where we could link at our great-great-grandparent
  • 3 possibilities where we could link at our great-great-great-grandparent
  • 1 possibility where we could link as far back as our great-great-great-great-grandparent

This tells me that there are four different generations in play, where we might match. It also tells me that the most-distant linkage of a 4x great-grandparent, is also the least likely, since this relationship is only 1 out of 8 possible variants. There is a stronger likelihood of linking within the great- or great-great ranges, since half of the possible results fall within these two ranges.

The information provided by the Predicted Relationship “What Does This Mean?” button can aid my search for a shared common ancestor in so many ways. This route to more information should not be overlooked!

Confidence Level

The second subtle link on my individual match page is the small info button, located at the end of the line indicating the Confidence of the predicted match.

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Click on this info button, and you’ll get a small pop-up which will tell you how much of your DNA you share with your match.


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The higher the number of centimorgans, and the greater the number of segments, the closer you and your match are related.

Again, clicking on the “What does this mean” link provided in the black pop-up box takes you to a more detailed explanation, using the fictional match of “Bruce Bule” as an illustration.

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Keep reading in this box, and you’ll encounter this very helpful chart, explaining the terms AncestryDNA uses to define the Confidence in their prediction of relationship.

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This is followed by another very helpful chart, which gives further information about the predicted degree of relationship based upon the number of shared centimorgans.

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The initial small black pop-up box told me that my match JW and I shared 165 centimorgans and predicted we were third cousins. Looking at this chart, I can see that 165 centimorgans does indeed fall squarely within the predicted range of a 3rd cousin relationship.


Throughout both the Predicted Match and the Confidence Level screens, Ancestry also provides additional helpful links throughout, and more information than what can be summarized and illustrated here.

Be sure to investigate the Predicted Match and Confidence Level links for your own matches; it may give you the additional guidance you need to discern your relationship and common ancestor with some of your new-found cousins!


Linda Barnickel is a professional archivist and freelance writer. She is the author of the award-winning book, Milliken’s Bend: A Civil War Battle in History and Memory  and has written on numerous historical, genealogical, and archives-related subjects. Learn more about her work at


  1. Nathaniel Austin Gray

    I have been a member for well over a year and this is one of the most informative segments I’ve read. For those who have uploaded their Ancestry autosomal raw DNA data to GEDmatch, you already understand one of the terms Linda explains: centimorgans. I will admit I was unaware that this info (though not as helpful as a chromosome browser) was available by clicking on the “i” button next to the confidence level bar.
    Although I have connected with several previously unknown cousins and worked with them by running multiple kit analysis reports on, this feature Linda discusses here is beneficial because not all matches reply to inquiries! It also serves to encourage those who haven’t used GEDmatch to consider doing so.
    Thanks again, Linda. Great job!

  2. EJ Blom

    Interesting blog post. I agree that there is more information hidden behind the shared DNA cM. If Ancestry really wants some customers to extract as much information from their DNA hits as possible, why won’t they consider implementing a chromosome browser?
    There are other areas that are interesting as well, for instance X chromosomal hits that could really benefit from some kind of additional annotation of our ancestry trees (indicating which paths are possible given the X chromosomal data).

  3. Peggy Deras

    I want to add my voice to the chorus of those requesting, nay demanding, a chromosome browser from AncestryDNA. I have done this before, to no avail, but I keep trying. Adding all of our Ancestry matches to the correct section of the correct chromosome would be so much better than jumping through the GEDmatch hoops, helpful as they are. Fact is: I use Ancestry for assembling both my family trees and many private DNA match research trees. DNA research is relegated to 23andMe, FTDNA and GEDmatch because of Ancestry’s choice to deny us a chromosome browser.

  4. susan

    Once again, I’ll join with the others in requesting a chromosome browser. I keep my DNA matches on a spreadsheet, but only those on other websites. Can you imagine how many matches I could identify if I could add Ancestry matches to the spreadsheets?

  5. sara danison

    aLinda, you are so right!.I, also took some time to explore this.. I delight in showing my adult children, and grandchildren how this works.And a private bit of fun is determining relationships of others. Relationships would confound Martians.

  6. Joyce

    Best post I have seen in a VERY long time—I wish ancestry would do more of this type of informative stuff instead of all the “fluff” blogs.

    I have an older cousin I am trying to teach how to do things in ancestry—and the only way she seems to “get it” is if I snip and send things in email BUT not all things can be explained that way from MY end.

    She is having awful problems figuring out the right way to copy trees and no matter HOW many times I explain she still gets it wrong and attaches folks in wrong ways/places and then I have to go into her tree and try to fix whatever she has messed up.

    As I warned ancestry with NEW version, older folks are REALLY have a tough time figuring out the site—and I have YET to find a good place to send her to so she can learn how to use the different features. It is FRUSTRATING that I cannot find ONE place to send her to that explains all the various things and how to use on the site. PLEASE do more useful BLOGS for older folks who cannot make heads or tails of how to use the new site.

    It is difficult to teach a 78 year old lady things without step by step instructions! Such as the ones done above…


  7. Monika

    When checking your DNA test results take the slight variations in name into account. E.g., my husband’s German great-grandfather changed his name from Bietsch (pronounced Bitch) to Beach for obvious reasons. Always incorporate the original name in your tree or you will hit a brick wall. I am excited to discover that his DNA test results do connect us with a Bietsch that is standing in front of the same brick wall as we are. But it is one additional name that may help break down the wall. I also went, in person, to archives in the Czech Republic and obtained birth, marriage and death records straight out of the church books of that time. I use the spelling of these names as I found them in the church books. Found a cousin in the DNA test results who only uses the anglicized name (name as it was changed when her ancestors came to America). I was so curious about how we connect that I paid a genealogist in the Czech Republic to fond out how we are connected. This is how I discovered that my third great-grandmother had a brother and that this cousin is coming from the line of this great-grand uncle of mine. Yet when I informed her she did not add this connection to her tree (even though she is an active member) nor did she accommodate for the difference in spelling in the old country. You can take a horse to water but you cannot make him drink!

  8. jenny franklin

    very helpful post! now if they would just give us a chromosome browser I might stop recommending to my friends that they test elsewhere if they really want to use DNA to research or validate their trees!

  9. Abby Ferguson

    I like that it shows centimorgans, but to be honest that doesn’t really mean much if I can’t see them. A chromosome browser would be infinitely helpful, as would the ability to compare relatives to myself and each other. Yes there is gedmatch, but not everyone on ancestry has transferred their results or wants to.

  10. Laurie

    (Besides a chromosome browser)
    In addition to the star and dot, more indicators to place matches in certain groups, e.g. maternal/paternal, family groups, etc…
    Thank you for the informative, easy to understand, and useful article!

  11. It would really help to know the length of the longest segment. 81 cM in 9 segments may not be 9 segments of 9 cM, in fact it may be 3 of 20, 5 of 4 and one of 5. Frankly when the experts say ignore anything under 7 why go so low?

  12. Judi

    Interesting and helpful info BUT you can’t contact any of those possible relatives unless they are a CURRENT Ancestry member! Very disappointing!

  13. Cheryl Kotecki

    We love the smooth integration of pedigrees/family trees and DNA matching we get at Ancestry, and understand that, unlike other websites, Ancestry provides a high standard of customer service. We also understand that adding a chromosome browser could place a burden on customer service. However, not providing it is a definite weakness in Ancestry’s DNA services and makes us hesitate to recommend it to new customers who have serious genealogical questions to address. In fact, it is only with this warning that breaking down brick walls will not happen with Ancestry’s cousin matching that we mention it among the other available commercial services. It might help today’s members who are more sophisticated users of technology if the browser were available (as the features above are) if the Ancestry DNA users-help were more easily accessed than it is currently. I find that having to log in to the support center separately from the main website, and the structure of the support center makes it very challenging to use, and I am a technologically sophisticated user. Make it easier for us to search for answers to common questions, and you might find the burden on your customer support staff reduced to the point where your user base was happier and more self-supporting.

  14. JeanHollars

    What does a confidence level of “emerging” mean? And where has my DNA results page gone? I haven’t been able to access it for over a week.

  15. Kathy

    considering purchasing a kit as a Christmas gift. Will that person then need to buy a subscription to to view information?

  16. MikeSlater

    You say that you test all 23 pairs of chromosomes in the DNA test. This will include the sex-chromosomes. Will the test I just sent in be able to tell me if the DNA of my 5th cousin is descended from our “on-paper” common male ancestor?

    • Member Services Social Support Team

      When you say “on paper” do you mean that this male ancestor has done the DNA test also? If so, they will be matched up.

  17. Fran

    My sister had her DNA tested through ancestry and was surprised not to find any eastern European or Spanish ancestry in her results as we have always believed our father’s father was full blooded Spanish and our father’s mother was full blooded Russian. She then asked me to be tested and she also submitted a new test for herself. My results came back English (as that is what our mother is) along with Spanish and Eastern European. Her results came back the same as before, void of any Spanish or Eastern European ancestry. Could there be any possible explanation other than that we have different fathers?

    • Member Services Social Support Team

      @Fran: The DNA we inherit from each parent is completely random, so unless you’re an identical twin, your DNA profile won’t be exactly the same as a sibling’s. Each sibling could have picked up genetic information from different ancestors in the gene pool in the distant past. This would explain why one sibling could have more of one ethnicity than the other. Please see this article that explains more: As Linda advised, you would want to look at how closely you match each other instead and how many centimorgans you share. We have a number of helpful articles available from the DNA results page. These can be accessed by clicking on the Question Mark Icon located in the top right of either of your results pages. We hope this helps.

  18. MikeSlater

    The common ancestor is from the 1700s. The 2 descendants are 6th cousins. I’m hoping to confirm this common ancestry with the 2 DNA tests of the 2 cousins hoping that it will confirm their common Y-chromosome. And make it clear that those former slaves on one side are actually blood-relatives, not just named the same because of their ownership.

  19. Fran – Rather than concentrating on your “deep ancestry” (ethnic estimates), compare the amount of shared DNA between you and your sister, and the “predicted relationship.” These will provide far more definitive answers about your shared paternity, than the ethnic makeup. I am not a DNA expert, but I do know that the ethnic mix concerns ancestry from far back in time, even prior to written records; whereas the relationship assessment and shared quantity of DNA (as described above in this post) concerns the more recent past. See the chart above, for qty. of shared centimorgans, to see the dramatic difference between full siblings and half siblings.

  20. Marci

    Another person begging for a chromosome browser. The article was interesting but failed to explain that without much needed tools, Ancestry DNA by itself is useless for providing proofs if you do think you’ve broken down a brick wall. The fact that 5 other people copied an inaccurate tree does NOT prove you are related to them or some common ancestor. Customers need to understand this, because now all the Ancestry DNA data is doing is perpetuating more inaccurate information.

    My suggestion. Hide the chromosome data under the little ‘i’ icon – EXAMPLE: 22 cMs on CH 4 85042760 – 110341949 Only people who know what they are doing would even know what it meant or that it was there, and other users would never see the information and would not call customer service about it.

  21. Pat

    To the Member Services Social Support Team: Can you answer the question that so many of us have as to why Ancestry doesn’t have a chromosome browser ? Would that be something we could look forward to? It would be wonderful! Thank you!

  22. Nathaniel Gray

    On December 1, I posted the first comment in this thread. I have checked back from time to time until today (Dec. 15) when I decided to post another comment related to at least 6 or 7 different members who have asked “Member Services Support Team (MSST)” to address the issue of a chromosome browser – if and when Ancestry will ever offer that very useful tool. Has anyone noticed how the MSST avoided answering these comments and questions and, in most cases the four (yes, that’s correct – only four) responses to other questions by the MSST were quite superficial? Here is a great comment made by Marci on Dec. 11: “My suggestion. Hide the chromosome data under the little ‘i’ icon – EXAMPLE: 22 cMs on CH 4 85042760 – 110341949 Only people who know what they are doing would even know what it meant or that it was there, and other users would never see the information and would not call customer service about it.” Since it is obvious no answer will be given related to members asking if and when Ancestry will provide a chr. browser like FTDNA has, let us address another issue that perhaps the MSST can answer. My ethnic background ESTIMATES (yes, I know they are estimates) based on my Ancestry DNA test show 67% Europe West; 31% G.B. and Ireland. My FTDNA ethnic background estimates show 54% British Isles; 28% W&C Europe; 12% Scandanavia. JUST THE OPPOSITE if you “step back and look at it”! I’ve read several articles and blogs criticizing Ancestry for putting too much weight in their mainland Europe estimates and not enough in their British Isles (G.B., Ireland) estimates. Can the MSST please provide a link to an article which might shed a more positive review (third party) of Ancestry’s results? Thanks to everyone who has commented in this thread – great discussion.

  23. Monika

    In case this is helpful to anyone who checks his/her “Ancestry/DNA Results”. ACOM tries to be helpful and, as you press on a possible match, and it lists the matches surnames, ACOM will write a little blurb saying “names your trees have in common – Smith”. As I have looked through these DNA results I find names that are in MY tree as well as in the “match’s tree” but that are not picked up by ACOM because of a slight discrepancy. E.g., in the old German/Austrian birth records you will find that when a female was born an “in” was added to hear surname. So, if her father’s surname was e.g. GLASER the daughter’s surname was GLASERIN. That was to indicate the sex of the newborn. I have found several cousins by going through their entire list of names and found comnmon names that were not caught by ACOM because of that slight discrepancy. E.g., I have the male ancestor by, let’s say GLASER and she has GLASERIN in her tree but ACOM would not flag this as a “name in common”. So look carefully through all the names that are listed even if ACOM claims that you do not have a name in common in your trees.

  24. Jude

    I think Ancestry DNA is still fairly useless. So is GEDMatch, but at least it’s free. I REALLY, REALLY, REALLY wish there was a way to make Ancestry better overall, but especially to make the DNA portion of the results more useful. No, I take that back–a way to make all of Ancestry better. Listen to your customers, stick all of the complainers in a group so we can help you make this a decent product, worth spending so darned much money on. A chromosome browser is just the start. Helping people weed the garbage out of their trees would be another useful innovation. Improving the quality of indexing. But especially making the search function better. Yuck. Ancestry. Yuck.

  25. Tammy Burton

    If you can click more than one: i.e. hints and new, that would save time and frustration than have to keep scrolling through all the ones you’ve already screened.

  26. Gary Huffman

    Last night half of my DNA matches were deleted form my tree without warning. Old trees contain useful information to find more cousins. Why were they deleted? You used to give warning as to upcoming changes. That was useful. Why did stop? I find the changes to cause endless frustration. I just get used to something then it is gone. Famous people finder was interesting but it is gone just like like half of my DNA matches.

  27. Linda Barnickel

    Monika – Thank you so much for pointing out this information about masculine/feminine variants of surnames! I had never thought about that. I have a similar situation with Polish ancestry – masculine ends in “i” and feminine in “a”. Great point! I had never considered how this might impact my searches or matches with others’ trees.

  28. I would like to encourage people that have Ancestry DNA profiles to use all the resources that profile has and reply to messages you get from your matches. Also keep track of the Shared matches it helps you find the line between you and your match.

    The Biggest issue i have is people keeping on ancestry to finish the collaboration, and the DNA website server does not update enough to show your shared people and hints.

    Also Ancestry has updated the regular profiles outside of the DNA server to show if you have a DNA match with another persons profile, it works only a few times but keep your eye out for that.
    i have to new sites i found that can help with genealogy!!
    Fist site
    and they have good resources.

    Merry Christmas Everyone and a happy New Year!

  29. Janet

    AncestryDNA has addressed their stance on a chromosome browser. Here are the key points. You can read the article in its entirety in the help section on AncestryDNA.

    “What are chromosome browsers and what are their limitations?
    “Chromosome browsers” are software packages that let you visualize where on the genome two or more people share DNA. There are some important limitations to consider when using chromosome browsers to search for evidence at the DNA segment level to validate lines in your family tree: you are limited to only the DNA segments you share with your matches, and shared DNA is not always an indication that you are genealogically related to someone.

    Limitation 1: You can only study your DNA matches
    Looking at your DNA matches alone can limit you when you’re looking for evidence that you are a descendant of a particular ancestor.
    If you can only analyze the DNA of your matches, you’ll be missing out on discovering distant cousins who don’t share DNA with you but who could still provide evidence for whether you’re descended from a particular ancestor. ….it’s quite common for distant relatives (beyond fourth cousins) to not share DNA at all (i.e., around 30 percent of the time 4th cousins will not be a DNA match, and around 70 percent of the time 5th cousins will not).

    Limitation 2: Having the same segment of DNA doesn’t always indicate that you share an ancestor
    At some point, the more people you match on a particular segment, the less likely it is that you and a DNA match are descendants of a common ancestor, and the more likely it is you’re identical by state. So, using a chromosome browser to find multiple people who match you on the same segment—even if you have the same ancestor in your trees—is not definitive evidence that you have a common ancestor.”

  30. Afie McRae

    I just had my DNA test done and was trying to figure out the 4th cousins match. However, I was adopted and my tree on family search has nothing to do with my DNA. Is there a way to unlink my tree to my DNA to get a more accurate reading on my related cousins?

  31. Chris Fricke

    I recently sent in my DNA kit. Once the testing has been completed what happens to my sample? Is it destroyed?

  32. Margaret Scandrett

    I had my dna done and I cant find what kind of test it was and I also need the number. It was done in 2016.

  33. Rena Ransom

    Do we have a new feature for ancestry dna members which allows us to click on a user name in the public and private family tree section and see if you share dna? I am occasionally able to do this

  34. Martha

    I see a lot of people who like this gedmatch browser for Chromosomes on Ancestry. I must be missing something since I see know value at all on gedmatch. What good is a chromosome number if you don’t know which surname the person matches you with?

  35. Diane

    Love ancestry DNA, but one tool severely lacking is the chromosome browser. Please consider adding this valuable tool. Being able to use GEDmatch to obtain this tool is a help, but not everyone is willing to upload their ancestry DNA to that site. A chromosome browser in the ancestry program would be greatly appreciated and useful!!! Also, it would be nice if we could sort our matches into folders. I “star” and make notes on matches I want to keep track of, but I still have to go through each of them to determine what I am looking for. If you had some type of folder system, the matches could be moved into folders labeled however a person wanted to keep things organized. All matches would be under one specific heading, instead of all lumped together with every other match you have. Just a thought.

  36. Monika

    @Diane – Ability to create folders would be a great idea. I also would like to be able to “dump” many of the useless non-matches. If I cannot delete these, having a folder would help me do that because I can call this folder “deleted”.

  37. Monika

    I just had one very negative and one VERY positive experience calling customer service regarding my Ancestry DNA results. I administer both, my DNA test results and my husband’s DNA test results. This morning my DNA test results page was blank but I was able to access my husband’s DNA test results, both on my lap top and my desk top (two totally different computers with different browsers). This was the case for a period of about six hours (I was able to access both these pages until midnight last night). So I decided to call Customer Service. The first person I talked to immediately said “It has to be your browser.” (That’s the lazy answer that some ACOM customer service representatives use as a Mantra.) Oh, yeah, my browsers (two different browsers on two different computers) will not let me see MY DNA page results but will let me see my husband’s DNA test results. Do I have “stupid” written on my forehead??? So I hung up and called again. This time I had the good fortune of having an intelligent and friendly customer service representative who stated that “Oh, yes, it will not load on my computer either! Let me try something!” and “whoops” my page was back and visible on both my laptop and my main computer. This “It’s your browser” mantra is really getting old! Thank goodness for the few good customer service representatives at ACOM and my having had the luck to come across one of them today!

  38. Thomas Gull

    Re the post from Ancestry echoed by Janet 12/26 at 8:43 pm: these are what I consider smoke and mirrors meant to convince people who haven’t used chromosome browsers that Ancestry is reasonable in not providing one. Limitation 1: “Looking at your DNA matches alone can limit you when you’re looking for evidence that you are a descendant of a particular ancestor.” So what? It’s a chromosome browser, not a “find all possible evidence and analyze it browser”. Just because one tool doesn’t fit all needs doesn’t mean the tool is by definition useless! DNA analysis can provide insights that no study of the paper trail can provide. To skip it because it’s not all-encompassing is a self-servicing argument, not a logical one. Limitation 2: “So, using a chromosome browser to find multiple people who match you on the same segment—even if you have the same ancestor in your trees—is not definitive evidence that you have a common ancestor.” Huh? It’s about probability. So if (a) the matching segments are long enough to be IBD instead of IBS (the numbers are well-documented) AND (b) you triangulate in on an common ancestor by having a group of people who match each other in one or more segments at IBD levels, you are looking at close to definitive evidence of the common ancestry. If you match two people on the “same segment” but they don’t match each other, then one is paternal and one maternal for you and all three won’t match each other – that’s an exception. But if the segment lengths are high enough and you triangulate with DNA only, you have that common ancestor. If you are able to see the match in your pedigrees, then you can name the ancestor (or ancestral couple). I have helped multiple people confirm ancestry solely from a DNA match that pointed to triangulated matches with a known ancestor. This posting from Ancestry is purposely misleading, in my opinion. It’s an attempt to make the chromosome browser seem like a fringe thing in DNA genealogy research, where it’s really central to the whole activity.

  39. Thomas Gull

    After a bit more thought, three points to make:
    1. As suggested before, a chromosome browser is IMO the single most useful and basic tool we can use for genetic genealogy. Without it, Ancestry is mostly just bringing other people to our attention, and many of those people won’t reply to any inquiries no matter how politely worded. This makes Ancestry DNA a noticeably inferior product for people who actually want to use DNA evidence in the most obvious way.
    2. Those of us who do use GEDmatch or FTDNA browsers are able to actually build viable DNA Circles that Ancestry would be incapable of highlighting – by doing deeper research into both the DNA matching and pedigree matching. Once we identify these circles, we have no way of passing the information along to Ancestry even though it would clearly help their scientists figure out how to find more circles more effectively.
    3. Instead, we get these bizarre New Ancestor Discoveries. I have been unable to find anything useful from a single one of those to date because (a) the pedigrees aren’t deep enough to find paper matches and (b) I don’t know where to look because I don’t know where the DNA actually overlaps to make use of matches found earlier.
    4. I agree with an earlier post about needing folders or some other way of organizing the Hinted matches beyond the two available sorts (date and some blended measure of projected cousinship and Extremely High to Moderate matches). We shouldn’t each have to come up with some scheme of organizing hinted matches (I’m up to 288 at the moment). Folders would be a good idea. Organizing by lineage from a tree’s home person or selected person might be another. That is, put all the matches from a given line together. As it is, I’m taking screenshots of the matches now to put into an Excel spreadsheet, one per sheet. That way, I’ll at least be able to sort by the male or female match in the pedigree to group people together. There could be a lot of features added to the UI to help when you start to get a number of matches and need to work across them for patterns.
    But first and foremost, I’d be happy if 100% of the effort went into providing a competent chromosome browser now, ignoring everything else. The value for the money is in the segment data. I love, for example, that FTDNA will let you download all the matching segment info from its chromosome browser so you can sort by segments within chromosome and easily find people who cluster together in a real sense. If they would just combine that with the GEDmatch one-to-one comparison to take the place of their Matrix feature, all of us could do the basic research in one place.

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