Posted by Juliana Szucs on July 29, 2014 in Ask Juliana, Collections, Research, Website

City directories are incredible sources. In many cities, they were published annually, which can give us a lot of detail about our ancestors. Here are six things to look for in city directories.

1. Your Ancestor and Other Family Members

Sure, you’re going to look for your ancestor, but look for other family members, too. Some of them may have lived nearby, others across town. Then follow the family year-by-year to note changes in occupation, living arrangements, even deaths of a head of household. Add it all to a timeline so you can keep track of the family’s comings and goings.

2. Streets and Maps

Street names can change over time. So can house numbers. To get a real look at your ancestor’s neighborhood, look for street directories inside city directories. In some cases you may even find maps of the city or town. Street directories will typically give you cross streets, which you can use to orient you on modern day maps. This sample lists the right and left side of the street and the house number that corresponds with each intersection.

Brooklyn, New York, 1877


Mobile, Alabama 1890

You may also find a reverse directory that lists residents by address, as well as cross streets. Use these to look through the neighborhood when searching for your ancestor’s name just isn’t working. It’s also a good way to see who is living nearby.

3. Churches and Clerics

Religious records are incredibly valuable for discovering dates, places, and family relationships. For the years before states were required to keep records of births, marriages, and deaths, churches may be the only place to find that information. Use city directories to find the churches nearest to your ancestor and churches that may be affiliated with his or her ethnic background.

If you find the name of a cleric on records associated with your family, research the cleric in city directories, too. Use his address and compare it to the address of local churches to determine church affiliation. Also look to see if the directory you’re viewing has a list of churches and synagogues that includes the names of clerics.


Chicago, Illinois, 1900

4. Cemeteries

Check city directories for cemeteries near where your relatives lived. They may point you to burial locations, possibly even a family plot, where you’ll find details about more than one family member. This directory from Mobile, Alabama in 1890, gives the cemetery locations and even the name of the sexton.


Mobile, Alabama, 1890

5. Advertisements

Look at the ads carefully. You may discover more information about a family member’s business or place of business, names of photographers, banks, organizations and other details that  could appear elsewhere in your family’s history. Advertisements were a big source of revenue for directories and this Buffalo directory calls its index of advertisers the “Honor Roll.” Page numbers in the final column will take you directly to the ad.


Buffalo, New York, 1939

6. Historical Information

City directories often included histories of the area, some with images of the city, too. That same Buffalo directory from 1939 includes an Introduction that spans 21 pages with photographs of the city and its landmarks, and sections on early history and settlers, historic sites, street names, statistics, and more. There are even sections outlining the history of several ethnic groups in Buffalo (Polish, German, Italian, Irish, and Jewish). All of this can give you a little more background on your family and their home life.


Buffalo, New York, 1939

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Juliana Szucs

Juliana Szucs has been working for for more than 20 years. She began her family history journey trolling through microfilms with her mother at the age of 11. She has written many articles for online and print genealogical publications and wrote the "Computers and Technology" chapter of The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Juliana holds a certificate from Boston University's Online Genealogical Research Program.


  1. Nancy Reed

    City Directories are great for solving some of the mysteries. When the info is saved to the a person (and the spouse), I wish the street would also be posted in Ancestry not just ‘Lived in X City and Year. ‘Occupation’ from the Directory listing to the Ancestry posting would also be a great help.

  2. Debbie

    Thanks Juliana.
    I’ve used city directories for years. Never thought of looking up the cleric who performed the baptism/marriage. As they say “priceless”

  3. Darcy

    Maybe I am missing something, but the UK city and county directories and the BMD index are pretty useless for the most part. The directories show a first name on one page and Smith on another. Never a first and last name together. How can you find anyone? Also the UK BMD index gives a name and birth not much, no parents etc. Am I missing how to research this? If not, take off, it clutters the research

  4. Vicki

    I agree Nancy. I’ve been manually entering the street addresses on the timelines and it is a pain in the butt, not to mention time consuming if there is a spouse because the information needs to be entered twice! The U.S. City Directory Volumes have addresses lumped together from different years. ugh!

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