Posted by Amy Johnson Crow on July 19, 2014 in Research

Ptolemy V had a problem. He was pharaoh, but was fighting opposition in parts of Egypt. Compounding the issue was the fact that he was only 13. On the first anniversary of his coronation, the priests issued a decree in support of young Ptolemy. To make sure everyone understood, they inscribed it in three languages: hieroglyphic (for the priests), demotic (what the literate commoner would read), and Greek (used by administrators).

As decrees are apt to do, it got lost in the sands of time (literally). The stone on which it was inscribed was rediscovered on this date in 1799 by Napoleon’s forces near Rosetta. After Napoleon’s defeat, the Rosetta Stone was turned over to Britain and eventually ended up in the British Museum.


What does this have to do with genealogy?

The Rosetta Stone was the key to unlocking a lost language. By taking something unknown (hieroglyphs) and comparing it to something known (Greek) and somewhat known (demotic), scholars could eventually reconstruct how that language worked. We can do the same thing today with the documents we use.

lawyer-sawyerTake a look at this sample from the 1860 census. Is the underlined occupation “Lawyer” or “Sawyer”? Looking just at this word, you could argue for either one. The key is to compare it with known letters. The top occupation is “Servant,” the fourth one is “Livery Stable,” and the bottom occupation is “Servant.” Now we have examples of things we know are capital “S” and capital “L.” The capital “S”s all make a loop that ends within the letter; the capital “L” makes a loop that goes into the next letter. The occupation in question is “Lawyer.”

You can also take context clues. Besides comparing to other letters, see what makes sense in terms of the entire document. In the Lawyer/Sawyer example, knowing that it was Abraham Lincoln’s 1860 census record would be a good context clue! By 1860, Lincoln (another capital “L” we could compare to) was a lawyer living in Springfield, Illinois.

Context clues can also be found by reading something out loud, beginning at the beginning of the text. The word in this family Bible is hard to read on its own, but when you read it in context, you see that it’s “sun” (misspelling “son”) – “Gorge M. Gist was Born Aprile 15 1860 Sun of Mordecai W. Gist and Barbara Gist.”


When it comes to reading old handwriting, the key is to look more broadly than just the letter or word in question. Just like scholars did with the Rosetta Stone, compare what you don’t know with something you do know and look for those context clues.


Amy Johnson Crow

Amy Johnson Crow is a Certified Genealogist and an active lecturer and author. Her roots run deep in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic states. She earned her Masters degree in Library and Information Science at Kent State University. Amy loves to help people discover the joys of learning about their ancestors and she thinks that there are few things better than a day in a cemetery. You can find her on Facebook, Twitter, and Amy Johnson Crow.


  1. I have often wndered about the Rosetta Stone. A clearly written comment regarding this aneique artifact. I sang in a Greek chior almost 20 years so have some knowledge of liturgical usage. I moved from the Greek speaking community in Seattle to Olympia about 10 years ago, so have been away from the usage of Greek forrr quite some time. I would enjoy seeing the Greek transcription of the Rosetta Stone. Thank you for posting this explanation of the Rosetta Stone. Evelyn Hofffman

Comments are closed.