The year was 1830 and France was in a recession. The Bourbon monarch, Charles X, dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and began placing restrictions on the press. The result was an uprising in Paris. The city was taken by the rebellion and in the end Charles X was forced out and left the country. The throne went to Louis Phillippe, Duke of Orleans.
Poland, which had been divided amongst its neighbors in 1815, also saw an uprising in the Congress of Poland, which was under oppressive Russian rule. The rebellion in November 1830 had a promising start, drawing sympathy from other countries, but was soon put down. The Russians sought retribution. Polish estates were confiscated and given to Russian officials, universities closed, officers pressed into service in the Russian military, Polish nobles (known as the szlachta) were dispossessed and sent to Caucasus, and others were executed.Â (Other resources: â€œThe Polish Way: A Thousand-year History of the Poles and their Culture,â€ by Adam Zamoyski.)
In America, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in northwestern New York following the publication of the Book of Mormon. The Church would grow to include more than 10 million members over the next 167 years.Â Continue reading